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The search field accepts scientific plant names, i. e. names of genera or Brassicaceae tribes.


  • Camelineae — will find information about all member genera of tribe Camelineae.
  • Arabidopsis — will find information about the genus Arabidopsis.

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A format commonly used in phylogenetics to represent a tree structure as nested brackets.
"American standard code for information interchange": the name can be used almost synonymously with "plain text", also including a very limited graphics capability.
A format commonly used to store alignments along with meta-information, e. g. analysis parameters. Used e. g. by PAUP* and MrBayes.
Probably due to its simplicity the most frequently used sequence or alignment format ever designed. Used by a vast majority of bioinformatics programs and packages.
Widely used alignment format. Required as input by many bioinformatics programs. The interleaved version is exported here. Unfortunately very limited meta-information capabilities.
The alignment format originally used by the GCG Wisconsin bioinformatics package (e. g. Pileup). Still widely used as an alignment format.
The format used by Clustal (and some other programs) to store alignments.

Phylogenetic concepts — References

  • Al-Shehbaz, I. A. , D. A. German, R. Karl, I. Jordon-Thaden, and M. A. Koch. 2011. Nomenclatural adjustments in the tribe Arabideae. Plant Div. Evol. 129: 71–76. PDF A-1
  • Alexander, P. J. , M. D. Windham, R. Govindarajulu, I. A. Al-Shehbaz, and C. D. Bailey. 2010. Molecular phylogenetics and taxonomy of the genus Thysanocarpus (Brassicaceae). Syst. Bot. 35: 559–577. PDF A-27

  • Bailey C. D. , R. A. Price, and J. J. Doyle. 2002. Systematics of the halimolobine Brassicaceae: Evidence from three loci and morphology. Syst. Bot. 27: 318–332.
  • Bailey, C. D. 2001. Systematics of Sphaerocardamum (Brassicaceae). Ph. D. dissertation, Cornell University, Ithaca. 180 pp. Bailey, C. D. and J. J. Doyle. 1999. Potential phylogenetic utility of the low-copy nuclear gene pistillata in dicotyledonous plants: comparison to nrDNA ITS and trn L intron in Sphaerocardamum and other Brassicacae. Molec. Phylogenet. Evol. 13: 20–30.
  • Bailey, C. D. , M. A. Koch, K. Mummenhoff, M. Mayer, S. L. O’Kane Jr. , S. I. Warwick, M. D. Windham, & I. A. Al-Shehbaz. 2006. Toward a global phylogeny of the Brassicaceae. Molec. Biol. Evol. 23(11): 2142 - 2160.
  • Beck, J. B. 2009. The phylogeny of Selenia (Brassicaceae) inferred from chloroplast and nuclear sequence data. J. Bot. Res. Inst. Texas 3: 169?176.
  • Beilstein, M. , I. A. Al-Shehbaz & E. A. Kellogg. 2006. Brassicaceae phylogeny and trichome evolution. Am. J. Bot. 93: 607 - 619.
  • Beilstein, M. A. 2007. Phylogeny and trichome evolution in the plant family Brassicaceae. Ph. D. dissertation, University of Missouri-St. Louis. Beilstein, M. & I. A. Al-Shehbaz. 2005. Pennellia brachycarpa (Brassicaceae), a new species from Jujuy, Argentina. Novon 15: 267 - 269.
  • Beilstein, M. A. , I. A. Al-Shehbaz, S. Mathews, & E. A. Kellogg. 2008. Brassicaceae phylogeny inferred from phytochrome A and ndh F sequence data: Tribes and trichomes revisited. Amer. J. Bot. 95: 1307–1327.
  • Beilstein, M. A. , N. S. Nagalingum, M. D. Clements, S. R. Manchester, and S. Mathews. 2010. Dated molecular phylogenies indicate a Miocene origin for Arabidopsis thaliana. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 107: 18724 – 18728. PDF A-36
  • Beilstein, M. A. and D. Szymanski. 2004. Cytoskeletal requirements during Arabidopsis trichome development. Pp. 266–289 in P. J. Hussey (ed. ), The plant cytoskeleton in cell differentiation and development. Blackwell, Cambridge. Beilstein, M. A. and M. D. Windham. 2003. A phylogenetic analysis of western North American Draba (Brassicaceae) based on nuclear ribosomal DNA sequences from the ITS region. Syst. Bot. 28: 584–592.
  • Bleeker, W. , A. Franzke, K. Pollmann, A. H. D. Brown, and H. Hurka. 2002a. Phylogeny and biogeography of southern hemisphere high-mountain Cardamine species (Brassicaceae). Austral. Syst. Bot. 15: 575–581.
  • Bleeker, W. , C. Weber-Sparenberg, and H. Hurka. 2002b. Chloroplast DNA variation and biogeography in the genus Rorippa Scop. (Brassicaceae). Pl. Biol. 4: 104–111.

  • Carlsen, T. , W. Bleeker, H. Hurka, R. Elven, and C. Brochmann. 2009. Biogeographyu and phylogeny of Cardamine (Brassicaceae). Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 96: 215 - 236.
  • Couvreur, T. L. P. , A. Franzke, I. A. Al-Shehbaz, F. Bakker, M. A. Koch, and K. Mummenhoff. 2010. Molecular phylogenetics, temporal diversification and principles of evolution in the mustard family (Brassicaceae). Mol. Biol. Evol. 27: 55–71. PDF A-9

  • Francisco-Ortega, J. , J. Fuertes-Agu ilar, C. Gómez-Campo, A. Santos-Guerra , and R. K. Jansen. 1999. Internal transcribed spacer sequence phylogeny of Crambe (Brassicaceae): molecular data reveal two Old World disjunctions. Molec. Phylogenet. Evol. 11: 361–380.
  • Francisco-Ortega, J. , J. Fuertes-Aguilar, S. C. Kim, A. Santos-Guerra, D. J. Crawford, and R. K. Jansen. 2002. Phylogeny of the Macaronesian endemic Crambe section Dendrocrambe (Brassicaceae) based on internal transcribed spacer sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA. Amer. J. Bot. 89: 1984–1990.
  • Frankton, C. 1954. A new weed, Erysimum hieracifolium L. in Canada. Canad. Field-Naturalist 68: 27 –28. Franzke, A. and H. Hurka. 2000. Molecular systematics and biogeography of the Cardamine pratensis complex (Brassicaceae). Pl. Syst. Evol. 224: 213–234.
  • Franzke, A. , D. German, I. A. Al-Shehbaz, and K. Mummenhoff. 2009. Arabidopsis family ties: Molecular phylogeny and age estimates in the Brassicaceae. Taxon 58: 425 –437.
  • Franzke, A. , K. Pollmann, W. Bleeker, R. Kohrt, and H. Hurka. 1998. Molecular systematics of Cardamine and allied genera (Brassicaceae): ITS and non-coding chloroplast DNA. Folia Geobot. Phytotax. 33: 225–240.
  • Franzke, A. , M. A. Lysak, I. A. Al-Shehbaz, M. A. Koch, and K. Mummenhoff. 2011. Cabbage family affairs: The evolutionary history of Brassicaceae. Trends in Plant Sciences 16: 108-116. PDF A16 Freeman, J. L. , C. F. Quinn, S. DD. Lindblom, E. M. Klamper, and E. A. H. Pilon-Smits. 2009. Selenium protects the hyperaccumulator Stanley pinnata against black-tailed prairie dog herbivory in native seleniferous habitats. Amer. J. Boit. 96: 1075 –1085.

  • German, D. A. , J. R. Grant, M. A. Lysak, and I. A. Al-Shehbaz. 2011. Molecular phylogeny and systematics of the tribe Chorisporeae (Brassicaceae). Pl. Syst. Evol. 294: 65 –86. PDF A-8
  • German, D. A. , N. Friesen, B. Neuffer, I. A. Al-Shehbaz, and H. Hurka. 2009. Contribution to ITS phylogeny of the Brassicaceae, with special reference to some Asian Taxa. Plant Syst. Evol. 283: 33 –56. PDF A-17
  • Goodson, B. E. , A. Santos-Guerra, and R. K. Jansen. 2006. Molecular systematics of Descurainia (Brassicaceae) in the Canary Islands: biogeographic and taxonomic implications. Taxon 55: 671–682.
  • Goodson, B. E. , S. K. Rehman, and R. K. Jansen. 2011. Molecular systematics and biogeography of Descurainia (Brassicaceae) based on nuclear ITS and non-coding chloroplast DNA. Syst. Bot. 36: 957–980. PDF A-62

  • Hall, J. C. , H. H. Iltis, and K. J. Sytsma. 2004. Molecular phylogenetics of core Brassicales, placement of orphan genera Emblingia, Forchhammeria, Tirania, and character evolution. Syst. Bot. 29: 654 - 669.
  • Hall, J. C. , K. J. Sytsma, and H. H. Iltis. 2002. Phylogeny of Capparaceae and Brassicaceae based on chloroplast sequence data. Amer. J. Bot. 89: 1826 - 1842.
  • Heenan, P. B. and A. D. Mitchell. 2003. Phylogeny, biogeography and adaptive radiation of Pachycladon (Brassicaceae) in the mountains of South Island, New Zealand. J. Biogeogr. 30: 1737–1749. Heenan, P. B. , A. D. Mitchell, and M. Koch. 2002. Molecular systematics of the New Zealand Pachycladon (Brassicaceae) complex: generic circumscription and relationship to Arabidopsis s. l. and Arabis s. l. New Zealand J. Bot. 40: 543–562.

  • Jaén-Molina, J. Caujapé-Castells, J. A. Reyes-Betancort, H. Akhani, O. Fernández-Palacios, J. Pérez de Paz, R. Febles-Hernández, and A. Marrero-Rodríguez. 2009. The molecular phylogeny of Matthiola R. Br. (Brassicaceae) inferred from ITS sequences, with special emphasis on the Macaronesian endemics. Molec. Phylog. Evol. 53: 972–981. PDF A-70 Johnston, J. S. , A. E. Pepper, A. E. Hall, Z. J. Chen, G. Hodnett, J. Drabek, R. Lopez, and H. J. Price. 2005. Evolution of genome size in Brassicaceae. Ann. Bot. 95: 229–235.
  • Jordon-Thaden, I. , I. Hase, I. A. Al-Shehbaz, and M. A. Koch. 2010. Molecular phylogeny and systematics of the genus Draba s. l. (Brassicaceae) and identification of its closest related genera. Molec. Phyl. Evol. 55: 524 –540. PDF A-21

  • Khosravi, A. R. , F. Jacquemoud, S. Mohsenzadeh, Marck Menke, and K. Mummenhoff. 2009. Phylogenetic position and taxonomic classification of Aethionema trinervium (Brassicaceae): a morphologically variable subshrub from southwestern Asia. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 96: 564–574. PDF A-73
  • Khosravi, A. R. , S. Mohsenzadeh, and K. Mummenhoff. 2007. Phylogenetic position of Brossardia papyracea (Brassicaceae) based on sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA. Feddes Repert. 119: 13?23. PDF A-40
  • Khosravi, A. R. , S. Mohsenzadeh, and K. Mummenhoff. 2009. Phylogenetic relationships of Old World Brassicaceae from Iran based on nuclear ribosomal DNA sequences. Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 37: 106–115. PDF A-72
  • Kiefer, C. 2008. Origin and evolution of apomixis in North American genus Boechera species (Brassicaceae). Ph. D. dissertation, Heidelberg University, Germany. Kiefer, C. , C. Dobeš, T. F. Sharbel, and M. A. Koch. 2009. Boechera or not? Phylogeny and phylogeography of eastern North American Boechera species (Brassicaceae). Taxon 58: 1109–1121. PDF A-75
  • Kiefer, C. , C. Dobeš, T. F. Sharbel, and M. A. Koch. 2009. Phylogeographic structure of the chloroplast DNA gene pool in North American Boechera ?A genus and continental-wide perspective. Molec. Phylog. Evol. 52: 303–311.
  • Koch, M. 2002. Genetic differentiation and speciation in prealpine Cochlearia : Allohexaploid Cochlearia bavarica Vogt (Brassicaceae) compared to its diploid ancestor Cochlearia pyrenaica DC. in Germany and Austria. Pl. Syst. Evol. 232: 35–49. PDF A-87 Koch, M. 2003. Molecular phylogenetics, evolution and population biology in Brassicaceae. Pp. 1 - 35 in A. K. Sharma and A. Sharma (eds. ), Plant genome: biodiversity and evolution, vol. 1a (phanerogams). Science Publishers, Enfield, NH, USA.
  • Koch, M. , B. Haubold, and T. Mitchell-Olds. 2001. Molecular systematics of the Brassicaceae: evidence from coding plastidic mat K and nuclear Chs sequences. Amer. J. Bot. 88: 534 - 544. Koch, M. , I. A. Al-Shehbaz and K. Mummenhoff. 2003a. Molecular systematics, evolution, and population biology in the mustard family (Brassicaceae). Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 90: 151 - 171.
  • Koch, M. , C. Dobeš, and T. Mitchell-Olds. 2003c. Multiple hybrid formation in natural populations: concerted evolution of the internal transcribed spacer of nuclear ribosomal DNA (ITS) in North American Arabis divaricarpa (Brassicaceae). Molec. Biol. Evol. 20: 338–350.
  • Koch, M. A. , R. Karl, C. Kiefer, and I. A. Al-Shehbaz. 2010. Colonizing the American Continent: Systematics of the genus Arabis in North America (Brassicaceae). Amer. J. Bot. 97: 1040–1057. PDF A-3
  • Koch, M. and I. A. Al-Shehbaz. 2000. Molecular systematics of the Chinese Yinshania (Brassicaceae): evidence from plastid and nuclear ITS DNA sequence data. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 87: 246 - 272.
  • Koch, M. and I. A. Al-Shehbaz. 2002. Molecular data indicate complex intra- and intercontinental differentiation of American Draba (Brassicaceae). Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 89: 88 - 109. Koch, M. & I. A. Al-Shehbaz. 2004. Taxonomic and phylogenetic evaluation of the American " Thlaspi " species: identity and relationship to the Eurasian genus Noccaea (Brassicaceae). Syst. Bot. 29: 375 - 384.

  • Moazzeni, H. , S. Zarre, I. A. Al-Shehbaz, and K. Mummenhoff. 2010. Phylogeny of Isatis (Brassicaceae) and allied genera based on ITS sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA and morphological characters. Flora 205: 337–343. PDF A-19
  • Mummenhoff, K. , H. Brüggemann, and J. L. Bowman. 2001a. Chloroplast DNA phylogeny and biogeography of Lepidium (Brassicaceae). Amer. J. Bot. 88: 2051 - 2063.
  • Mummenhoff, K. I A. Al-Shehbaz, F. T. Bakker, H. P. Linder, and A. Mühlhausen. 2005. Phylogeny, morphological evolution, and speciation of endemic Brassicaceae genera in the Cape flora of southern Africa. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 92: 400 - 424.

  • Smith, J. F. , A. Stillman, S. R. Larson, C. M. Culumber, I. C. Robertson, and S. J. Novak. 2009. Phylogenetic relationship among Lepidium papilliferum (L. F. Henderson) A. Nels. & J. F. Macbr. , L. montanum Nutt. , and L. davisii Rollins (Brassicaceae). J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 136: 149–163.

  • Warwick, S. I. , C. A. Sauder, M. S. Mayer and I. A. Al-Shehbaz. 2009. Phylogenetic relationships in the tribes Schizopetaleae and Thelypodieae (Brassicaceae) based on nuclear ribosomal ITS region and plastid ndh F DNA sequences. Botany 87: 961 - 985. PDF A-29
  • Warwick, S. I. , C. Sauder, and I. A. Al-Shehbaz. 2008a. Phylogenetic relationship in the tribe Alysseae (Brassicaceae) based on nuclear ribosomal ITS DNA sequences. Canad. J. Bot. 86: 315–336.
  • Warwick, S. I. , C. Sauder, I. A. Al-Shehbaz, and F. Jacquemoud. 2007. Phylogenetic relationships in the tribes Anchonieae, Chorisporeae, Euclidieae, and Hesperideae (Brassicaceae) based on nuclear ribosomal ITS DNA sequences. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 94: 56 - 78.
  • Warwick, S. I. , I. A. Al-Shehbaz and C. A. Sauder. 2006a. Phylogenetic position of Arabis arenicola and generic limits of Eutrema and Aphragmus (Brassicaceae) based on sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA. Can. J. Bot. 84: 269 - 281.
  • Warwick, S. I. , I. A. Al-Shehbaz, C. A. Sauder, D. F. Murray & K. Mummenhoff. 2004a. Phylogeny of Smelowskia and related genera (Brassicaceae) based on ITS sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA and trn L intron of Chloroplast DNA. Ann. Missouri Bot. Garden 91: 99 - 123.
  • Warwick, S. I. , I. A. Al-Shehbaz, C. Sauder, J. G. Harris & M. Koch. 2004b. Phylogeny of Braya and Neotorularia and related genera (Brassicaceae) based on ITS sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA and trnL intron of chloroplast DNA. Can. J. Bot. 82: 376 - 392.
  • Warwick, S. I. , I. A. Al-Shehbaz, R. A. Price and C. A. Sauder. 2002. Phylogeny of Sisymbrium (Brassicaceae) based on ITS sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA. Can. J. Bot. 80: 1002 - 1017.
  • Warwick, S. I. , K. Mummenhoff, C. A. Sauder, M. A. Koch, and I. A. Al-Shehbaz. 2010. Closing the gaps: phylogenetic relationships in the Brassicaceae based on DNA sequence data of nuclear ribosomal ITS region. Pl. Syst. Evol. 285: 209–232. PDF A-28

  • Yue, J. P. , H. Sun, D. A. Baum, J. H. Li, I. A. Al-Shehbaz, and R. Ree. 2009. Molecular phylogeny of Solms-laubachia (Brassicaceae) s. l. , based on multiple nuclear and plastid DNA sequences, and its biogeographic implications. J. Syst. Evol. 47: 402 - 415.
  • Yue, J. P. , H. Sun, I. A. Al-Shehbaz & J. H. Li. 2006. Support for an expanded Solms-laubachia (Brassicaceae): evidences from sequences of chloroplast and nuclear genes. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 93: 402 - 411.
  • Yue, J. P. , H. Sun, J. H. Li, and I. A. Al-Shehbaz. 2007. A synopsis of an expanded Solms-laubachia (Brassicaceae) and the description of four new species from western China. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 95: 524–542.
  • Yue, J. P. , I. A. Al-Shehbaz & H. Sun. 2005. Solms-laubachia zhongdianensis (Brassicaceae), a new species from the Hengduan Mountains of Yunnan, China. Ann. Bot. Fennici 42: 155 - 158.

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